Plurality of Liberalisms. The Parliamentary Liberal Groups in the Third Polish Republic: An Analysis of Party Programmes and their Differences

Arkadiusz Lewandowski


In this paper, the problem of the variety of liberalisms in the Third Polish Republic is discussed. First, the objective is to determine the versions and degrees of liberalism that emerged in the Polish Parliament after 1989, and the characteristic features that can be attributed to them. The paper distinguishes the following types of liberalism: economic, modest, electoral, and cultural. Within each of them, some main characteristics are found to be decisive for labelling a political party according to the aforementioned scheme regarding the analysis of the political thought. The analysis is accomplished by drawing upon Szacki’s idea of the liberal minimum, as well as referring to the rights and liberty of individuals.

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